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The forced migration of more than , people ended in concentration camps in Suluq and El Agheila, where thousands died in squalid conditions. It is estimated that the number of Libyans who died, killed in the fighting or through starvation and disease is a minimum of 80, people, up to one third of the Cyrenaican population. After Al-Mukhtar's capture September 15, and his execution in Benghazi, the resistance petered out. Limited resistance to the Italian occupation crystallized round the person of Sheik Idris , the Emir of Cyrenaica.

In March Mussolini made a state visit to Libya, where he opened a new military highway running the entire length of the colony the Via Balbia. For propaganda reasons he had himself declared Protector of Islam and was presented with a symbolic sword.

Mussolini's publicized encouragement of the Arab nationalist movement suited his wider policies of confronting Britain and France. He also sought to fully colonise Libya, introducing 30, Italian colonists which brought their numbers to more than , These colonists were shipped primarily to Sahel al-Jefara in Tripolitania and the Jebel Akhdar in Cyrenaica, and given land from which the indigenous inhabitants had been partially removed during the colonial war in the s.

In , laws were passed that allowed Muslims to be permitted to join the National Fascist Party and in particular the Muslim Association of the Lictor Associazione Musulmana del Littorio , and the reforms allowed the creation of Libyan military units within the Italian army. As a consequence during the Second World War, there was strong support for Italy between many Libyans, who enrolled in the Italian Army other Libyan troops were fighting for the Kingdom of Italy since the s: the Savari cavalry regiments and the mounted police called Spahi.

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Indeed, two divisions of Libyan colonial troops with 30, native Muslim soldiers were created and in summer the first and second Divisions of Fanteria Libica -Libyan infantry - participated in the Italian offensive against British army in Egypt [3] : 1 Libyan Division Sibelle and 2 Libyan Division Pescatori. Since were imported to Tripoli new trains for some railways being built around Italian Tripoli. On 13 September , Mussolini's highway was used for the invasion of Egypt by Italian forces stationed in Libya. Two divisions of Libyan colonial troops for a total of native Muslim soldiers participated in the offensive.

Even a battalion of Libyan paratroopers [5] was raised shortly before World War II, the first force of this kind to be created in all Africa. Under the terms of the peace treaty with the Allies , Italy, which hoped to maintain the colony of Tripolitania , and France, which wanted the Fezzan , relinquished all claims to Libya.

In July , the Italian government offered a formal apology to Libya. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Main article: Italo-Turkish War. Main article: Italian Libya. In the early post-war period, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica remained under British administration, while the French controlled Fezzan. Migrants and refugees take incredibly high risks and dangers may be compounded by the attitude of some authorities at sea. Cooperation between Italy and Libya to counter migration has been long denounced.

On 14 April , a resolution of the EU Parliament condemned the collective expulsion to Libya on 17 March of migrants who had arrived at Lampedusa [8]. Arguing its lack of competence because of an incomplete communautarisation of asylum law, the European Commission did not intervene [9]. The Court was then constrained to remove the case from its list on January for a lack of factual elements [10] : it had become impossible to find the migrants, by then back in Libya.

Interestingly, changes will not come from the fall of Gaddafi, the war in Libya or the expectation of a future Libyan democracy. They will result from fundamental legal and institutional steps in Europe. A group of people who set off from the Libyan coasts was found at sea by Italian forces, and accompanied back to Libya. Thanks to the CIR Consiglio Italiano per i Rifugiati , whose presence in Libya had been authorised in , 24 persons out of were taken in charge and decided to refer to the ECHR to report how they had been unable to file a request for asylum before being brought to Libya, where most of them were detained.

In its judgement, the Court found that Italy had violated article 3 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights, since there was a real risk that the applicants would be subjected to inhuman treatment and torture in Libya and that the applicants had been exposed to the risk of arbitrary repatriation.

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The Court also held that there had been a violation of article 13 as the applicants were unable to lodge their complaint with a competent authority [12]. In addition to this historic case-law at European level, EU law has also taken a significant step which implies that such practices can no longer be tolerated. On 1 December , the Lisbon Treaty entered in force, making the European Charter for Human Rights compulsory as primary law and confirming the full communautarisation of EU asylum policy.

Lastly, NGOs going to national jurisdictions for similar practices have been multiplied [16] , following a similar trend in Australia, the pioneer in externalising border control. With the conclusion of this new MoU with Libyan representatives, Italy does not seem to have learned from experience.

Benghazi Province - Wikipedia

Italy may put an end to this practice of concluding agreements in simplified form which avoids debates and enables late publication. The security dimension should not be a pretext to discard public scrutiny over human rights obligations. Italy has just entered into a new security pact with Libya, that is no longer led by Colonel Gaddafi, yet that cannot guarantee any protection of human rights. If this is no evidence of not being his supporters, then one must wonder what would constitute such evidence indeed.

If one argues that interests had changed over time, this is rather simplistic and ignores the difference between what is desirable and feasible in international affairs: or does it imply that Europe should have bombed Gaddafi earlier?


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What about all those including in Europe who had opposed the US bombing? Again, how would the EU have altered such a situation with internal coherence or not? The Arab League is famous for its lack of influence due to its divisions over most international issues, including those affecting Arab states.

go to link Moreover, taking this into consideration did not alter at all their otherwise critical analysis. As Jose Magone notes:. The European Parliament has been a vehement supporter of the pro-democracy movement. Such support has been characterised by cross-party support. Military intervention was regarded by Members of the EP as a legitimate action, if civilian lives are at stake.

What follows offers a detailed account of why this was the case in the EP. Thus legitimizing and democratizing its impact even further. In particular, it warned about serious difficulties in EP-Libyan relations due to the fact that there is no real parliament in Libya. Parliament is a misrepresentation of the people, and parliamentary systems are a false solution to the problem of democracy.


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  6. On behalf of the European Parliament, I urge the authorities in Libya to halt all violence against the demonstrators. It is our responsibility as parliamentarians to stand by the people who, regardless of the price, are fighting for their fundamental freedoms. Europe has a historic duty today to support the people in their fight for freedom and democracy against authoritarianism, repression and human rights violation. The European Parliament has always been a strong advocate of an EU foreign policy based on values rather than interests.

    Our stance has often been overlooked as not being realist enough. Today, the people are proving the cynics wrong. All initial proposals submitted by the various political groups were eventually merged into a single motion for resolution. I am glad and relieved that the international community has finally taken concrete action to stop Gaddafi killing his own people. The European Parliament has explicitly backed the possibility of a no-fly zone in its resolution of last Thursday.

    In the coming days, I will discuss with leaders from Tunisia, Egypt and the Arab League how the resolution of the Security Council can be implemented. The lack of a tradition of elections or political parties in this country leaves a vast room for assistance and cooperation in the field of institution-building, where the parliamentary input can be extremely valuable. The main difference between these two modalities is that EU EOMs involve both long-term and short-term observers and cover the entire electoral process comprehensively from six to eight weeks before election day , while the time frame of EU EATs is much more limited around two weeks, including election day The main criteria for assessing the quality of the electoral process include the degree of freedom of political parties and candidates, of impartiality shown by the election administration, respect for universal franchise, access to media, conduct and counting of polling, as well as other related issues to the democratic nature of the election.

    It marks a historic step for the Country and its people […]. The suggested EU contribution consisted in sending experts and trainers on mediation and dialogue to help the Libyan actors. Reasonable ambitions are the best starting point. It is unlikely that the EU will ever become the kind of high-profile and effective international security actor that some seem to think it should be.

    To assume that a Union comprising so many different states with so many different preferences and interests could easily assume control of a mission the size of the involvement in Libya is to fundamentally misunderstand the nature of this grouping of sovereign nation states. And it would be wrong to attribute the blame to the Union itself.

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    Rather, it is up to member states to step up to the plate in order that, collectively, they can achieve things that none can manage individually. Debating institutions is all well and good. Yet this should not serve as an alibi for member states that are responsible for the major failings of EU security policies. Something that some member states do not wish to see happen and that most public opinions in Europe would not support probably.

    Libya episode 2, pt.1: The Turco-Italian War

    This is part of the debate but it should not be limited to the Libyan case all the same.