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As this for their respective outgroup. Then, participants were asked measure, in our opinion, only took the ingroup favoritism aspect to answer questions on political opinions and evaluations that of the bias into account, we decided to create a second item measured entitativity, agentivity, and perceived threat as related which could address the behavioral outgroup derogation as well.

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Participants were reminded bias on three domains see Measures paragraph for a more for both measures that the total amount given or taken away detailed description. Items for each measure were presented in had to be euro. Finally, Political Orientation Group was a randomized order. Outlier ability to act as a group. The only significant comparison between left and right-wing participants was on Perceived threat of the outgroup, with higher scores for former compared to the latter. The interaction was also perception of ingroup vs.

Comparisons of the mean scores between left and right-wing participants on the three measures of intergroup bias: emotions, cognition and behavior.

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This last measure was indexed in Donation using the formula ingroup donation — outgroup donation and in Deprivation using the formula ingroup deprivation — outgroup deprivation. In addition, we tested correlations between Perceived Threat, Behavioral intergroup bias results Agentivity and Entitativity. Mediation analysis Correlations Since the two political groups differed in Perceived Threat of Bivariate correlations were computed between the variables of the outgroup in Emotional and Cognitive Intergroup Bias we interest.

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The accepted alpha level of the p-value was Bonferroni used mediation analysis to assess whether the effect of Group on corrected for the maximum number of comparisons for each intergroup bias toward the outgroup i. The product-of-coefficients strategy to be involved at an emotional level of information processing with bootstrapping was used to test strength and significance of related to the outgroup, rather than at a cognitive level.

Moreover, the indirect effect Preacher and Hayes, ; Preacher et al. Two-tailed pairwise correlation. The predictor variable Group was coded 1 for right and 2 for left-wing participants. This means that an increase of 1 political orientation — namely, being left-wing — indicates a decrease in positive emotions toward the outgroup and thus an increase in negative ones. The direct path remained significant after inserting Perceived Threat, but the effect size decreased from —1.

Thus, an increase of 1 political orientation — namely, being left-wing — indicates a decrease in positive traits assigned to the outgroup and an increase of negative ones. In contrast with studies indicating that intergroup right-wing ones did not, as in Study 1. The bias emerged bias is stronger in Conservatives, our results showed left-wing not only at an emotional level, but also at the cognitive participants to be more biased than right-wing ones, who did not one, while no differences were found at a behavioral level.

It is worth noting More specifically, while the two groups did not differ in that a prior study using surveys, focus groups and interviews also their cognitive and emotional evaluations of the ingroup, found more bias in left-wing Italian voters than in right-wing left-wing participants expressed significantly more negative ones Catellani, Yet our results could be explained by the emotions toward — and worse cognitive evaluations of — the plasticity of the personalization process, which relies on the real, outgroup compared to right-wing participants.

This would be in keeping with our previous research influenced the effect in the emotional domain, but not in showing that right-wing people, differently from left-wing ones, the cognitive one. This suggests that other latent factors reduce their leader-voter perceived similarity and their tendency could contribute to the explanation of this phenomenon.

We speculate that right-wing participants, entitativity nor agentivity. Indeed, the ANOVA showed no being more sensitive to authority Altemeyer, and social differences between the two groups, either for the ingroup or hierarchies than left-wing ones Tilly et al. In three different studies we investigated the political intergroup In Study 2, where ideological words were employed, bias showed by left and right-wing participants in the intergroup bias was present in both left and right-wing contemporary Italian context.

As a main element of novelty participants. This result could be explained by the fact that words we used different types of stimuli to represent the political do not initiate the personalization process, allowing ideological target of evaluations with in mind the idea that changing opposition and the subsequent emotional activation to prevail, nature of the political target could affect the expression of the and intergroup bias to occur in both groups.

Interestingly, intergroup bias. Study 3 groups than Liberals Chirumbolo et al. However, there is also evidence to suggest that both in the different expression of the political intergroup bias groups are equally capable of expressing prejudice toward groups in the two groups. We asked participants to answer items that do not share their values or opinions, and that they containing an emotional, cognitive and behavioral evaluation perceive as a threat to their worldview Chambers et al. Left-wing participants again Brandt et al.

Motivated by the fact that both top— showed a higher bias than right-wing ones at the emotional down and bottom—up mechanisms related to political perception and cognitive levels, but no differences between the two can reciprocally affect each other Castelli and Carraro, ; groups were found in the behavioral domain.

However, Liuzza et al. Second, as for investigate the bias. In addition, the two questions Mair, ; Caprara and Vecchione, Indeed, thanks to that we presented lacked specific contextual information e. Political Intergroup Bias in the Italian Context how much money they had before donating , which might undermined the sense of unity both in right and left-wing have decreased the sensitivity of the measure and, thus, made voters. With this regard, the sacred values, Tetlock, ; Brandt et al. In fact, differences the authority of ingroup leaders, who were not in charge at the between political groups are based on moral values that are time of the study.

In turn, threat leads to strong Vampa, Relatedly, we found a mediating specifically at winning the elections; Vampa, has driven the role of perceived threat of the outgroup at the emotional level Italian left-wing to renounce a part of its political identity. An of the bias.

This result, which is in line with previous research open crisis and loss of consensus has resulted Vampa, , Brandt et al. We also tested voters by undermining their political and social identity. Moreover, crisis has produced perceived threat. We focused on perceived entitativity the extent economic and social instability that has contributed to growing to which a group is perceived as a group; Campbell, and populism in Italy as well as all over the world.

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Most of these agentivity the extent to which a group is perceived as able populistic political movements seem to have their roots in the to act as a group to achieve its goals; Abelson et al. Thus, were observed to modulate the intergroup bias in minimal and their spreading might have contributed to an increase of the natural groups see e.

On the one hand, left-wing people. Extreme examples of this are represented by we hypothesized that the more an outgroup is perceived as the episodes reported by Italian Media of assaults by left-wing an acting group, the more participants would show outgroup activists during right-wing manifestations e. On the other, we hypothesized that perceiving the All in all, our results seem to support the ideological conflict ingroup as entitative and agentive could have increase ingroup hypothesis Brandt et al.

In addition to this, our and the emotional and cognitive bias were found, making research has demonstrated the importance of how the ideological any further speculation regarding their role in influencing message is conveyed since it can make the emergence of the bias the intergroup bias impossible.

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We expected a bigger sense more or less likely. This somewhat surprising result might be explained Although confirming solid recent findings and extending these by the political situation at the time of the data collection. Political Intergroup Bias in the Italian Context push researchers to look for further evidence that could be addressing directly the behavior of interest, such as economic generalized or compared to other contexts. For instance, in investment games, e. In a display of utmost benevolence, I let him walk away. Soho is my neighborhood, so the choice came easily.

Giuseppe Schepisi — Italian Ministry of Health

I try to live my life as stylishly and inspiringly as I can. What do you do in your life work and fun? I wanted to see what I could do all alone, in the city where I always dreamt of living. Please share your best memory in the City.

What made you choose this specific location and outfit? The coverage of screening could be evaluated in three of the four participating centres. This coverage compares well with the In our programme the number of people to be screened in order to find one case of TB was The yield of TB screening was 84 per people. This is lower than the yield reported in a systematic review, showing to TB diagnoses per asylum seekers and refugees groups screened.

Among them, eight individuals were coughing for more than 3 weeks. The appropriateness of these medical decisions could not be ascertained. In addition, logistic, administrative and management factors partially explain the poor follow-up of people with positive TB questionnaires. To benefit from a referral consultation a police escort had to be organised.